Immersive Experience in the Metaverse: Implications for Tourism and Business

Main Article Content

Komang Gita Krishna Murti
Gede Sri Darma
Luh Putu Mahyuni
A.A. Ngurah Eddy Supriyadinata Gorda


Metaverse Tourism, Metaverse Implication, Metaverse Business, Virtual Reality Tourism, Augmented Reality Tourism


By providing immersive and interactive experiences, the metaverse has been changing how tourists spend their vacation. It also presents new business challenges, such as gaming, marketing, education, and smart city industries. This research explores the opportunities and challenges presented by the metaverse in the tourism and business industries. This research also discusses the metaverse implications that can transform people's experience and consumption when traveling and consuming. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to explore the implications of the metaverse for the tourism and business industries. This study's findings reveal several examples of applying the metaverse and its implications. In addition, this study also discovered that the emergence of the metaverse significantly impacts the tourism and business sectors. In practice, the review findings make tourism and business stakeholders aware of the potential of this immersive technology. Tourism providers and business leaders might consider using the metaverse to promote tourism destination and their businesses and develop a system that can maximize the benefits of this immersive technology.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 256 | pdf Downloads 127


Adams, D. (2022). Virtual Retail in the Metaverse: Customer Behavior Analytics, Extended Reality Technologies, and Immersive Visualization Systems. Linguistic & Philosophical Investigations. Retrieved from
Akour, I. A., Al-Maroof, R. S., Alfaisal, R., & Salloum, S. A. (2022). A conceptual framework for determining metaverse adoption in higher institutions of gulf area: An empirical study using hybrid SEM-ANN approach. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100052. doi: 10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100052
Allam, Zaheer, et al. “The “15-Minute City” Concept Can Shape a Net-Zero Urban Future.” Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, vol. 9, no. 1, 8 Apr. 2022, doi: 10.1057/s41599-022-01145-0.
Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., & ... (2022). Social Cognitive Theory to Assess the Intention to participate in the Facebook Metaverse by citizens in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Open …. doi: 10.3390/joitmc8030142
Arpaci, I., Karatas, K., Kusci, I., & Al-Emran, M. (2022). Understanding the social sustainability of the Metaverse by integrating UTAUT2 and big five personality traits: A hybrid SEM-ANN approach. Technology in Society. doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2022.102120
Balakrishnan, Athira, et al. “Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PLOS ONE, vol. 16, no. 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252461.
Belk, R., Humayun, M., & Brouard, M. (2022). Money, possessions, and ownership in the Metaverse: NFTs, cryptocurrencies, Web3 and Wild Markets. Journal of Business Research, 153, 198–205. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.08.031
Bibri, S. E., & Allam, Z. (2022). The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: On Post-Pandemic Governance through the Prism of the Logic of Surveillance Capitalism. Smart Cities, 5(2). doi: 10.3390/smartcities5020037
Bibri, S. E., Allam, Z., & Krogstie, J. (2022). The Metaverse as a virtual form of data-driven smart urbanism: platformization and its underlying processes, institutional dimensions, and disruptive impacts. Computational Urban Science, 2(1). doi: 10.1007/s43762-022-00051-0
Brown, R., Recker, J., & West, S. (2011). Using virtual worlds for collaborative business process modeling. Business Process Management Journal, 17(3), 546–564. doi: 10.1108/14637151111136414
Buhalis, D, & Karatay, N. (2022). Mixed reality (MR) for Generation Z in cultural heritage tourism towards metaverse. In ENTER22 e-Tourism Conference. Springer.doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-94751-4_2
Buhalis, Dimitrios, & Karatay, N. (2022). Mixed Reality (MR) for Generation Z in Cultural Heritage Tourism Towards Metaverse. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2022 (pp. 16–27). Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-94751-4_2
Buhalis, Dimitrios, Lin, M. S., & Leung, D. (2022). Metaverse as a driver for customer experience and value co-creation: implications for hospitality and tourism management and marketing. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, ahead-of-p(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/IJCHM-05-2022-0631
Cowan, K., & Ketron, S. (2019). Prioritizing marketing research in virtual reality: development of an immersion/fantasy typology. European Journal of Marketing, 53(8), 1585–1611. doi: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0733
Decentraland. (2021). At the heart of Decentraland, Genesis Plaza was always meant to be an experience that welcomed users to the metaverse, providing a stepping off point for the rest of the virtual world. retrieved from
Dionisio, John David N., et al. “3D Virtual Worlds and the Metaverse.” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 45, no. 3, June 2013, pp. 1–38, doi: 10.1145/2480741.2480751.
Dominguez-Noriega, S., Agudo, J. E., & ... (2011). Language learning resources and developments in the Second Life metaverse. In International Journal …. doi: 10.1504/IJTEL.2011.042101
Dwivedi, Y K, Hughes, L., Baabdullah, A. M., & ... (2022). Metaverse beyond the hype: Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy. In International Journal of …. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2022.102542
Dwivedi, Yogesh K., Hughes, L., Baabdullah, A. M., Ribeiro-Navarrete, S., Giannakis, M., Al-Debei, M. M., Dennehy, D., Metri, B., Buhalis, D., Cheung, C. M. K., Conboy, K., Doyle, R., Dubey, R., Dutot, V., Felix, R., Goyal, D. P., Gustafsson, A., Hinsch, C., Jebabli, I., … Wamba, S. F. (2022). Metaverse beyond the hype: Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy. International Journal of Information Management, 66.doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2022.102542
Fakharany, H. El, & Salama, M. (2022). Sharing Economy and Enhancing Tourist Perceived Value: A Proposed Conception for an Official Timeshare Platform in Egypt. In International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management (Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 138–154). Egypts Presidential Specialized Council for Education and Scientific Research. doi: 10.21608/ijthm.2022.270145
Filimonau, V., Ashton, M., & Stankov, U. (2022). Virtual spaces as the future of consumption in tourism, hospitality and events. Journal of Tourism Futures. doi: 10.1108/jtf-07-2022-0174
Gaafar, A. A. (2021). ’Metaverse in architectural heritage documentation & education. In Adv. Ecol. Environ. Res. from
Gadekallu, T. R., Huynh-The, T., Wang, W., Yenduri, G., Ranaweera, P., Pham, Q.-V., da Costa, D. B., & Liyanage, M. (2022). Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review. 1–17. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2203.09738
Giang Barrera, K., & Shah, D. (2023). Marketing in the Metaverse: Conceptual understanding, framework, and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 155, 113420. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.113420
Golf-Papez, M., Heller, J., Hilken, T., Chylinski, M., de Ruyter, K., Keeling, D. I., & Mahr, D. (2022). Embracing falsity through the metaverse: The case of synthetic customer experiences. Business Horizons, 65(6), 739–749. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2022.07.007
Gursoy, D., Malodia, S., & Dhir, A. (2022). The metaverse in the hospitality and tourism industry: An overview of current trends and future research directions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 31(5), 527–534.doi: 10.1080/19368623.2022.2072504
Han, H., Park, S., & Hyun, K. H. (2022). Effects of virtual stores’ opaque exterior on store perceptions and purchase intentions. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 50(13), 77–94. doi: 10.1108/IJRDM-06-2021-0274
Han, Y., Niyato, D., Leung, C., Kim, D. I., Zhu, K., & ... (2022a). A Dynamic Hierarchical Framework for IoT-assisted Digital Twin Synchronization in the Metaverse. IEEE Internet of …. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3201082.
Han, Y., Niyato, D., Leung, C., Kim, D. I., Zhu, K., & ... (2022b). A dynamic hierarchical framework for iot-assisted metaverse synchronization. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv …. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2203.03969
Hawkins, M. (2022). Metaverse Live Shopping Analytics: Retail Data Measurement Tools, Computer Vision and Deep Learning Algorithms, and Decision Intelligence and Modeling. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 10(2), 22. doi: 10.22381/jsme10220222
Hazan, S. J. (2010). Musing the Metaverse. Heritage in the Digital Era, 95–104.
Hernandez, J. (2021). Nike Shares First Foray Into The Metaverse With NIKELAND On Roblox. retrieved from
Hopkins, E. (2022). Virtual Commerce in a Decentralized Blockchain-based Metaverse: Immersive Technologies, Computer Vision Algorithms, and Retail Business Analytics. Linguistic & Philosophical Investigations. retrieved from
Hsu, M. J., Ting, H., Lui, T. W., Chen, S. C., & Cheah, J. H. (2022). Guest editorial: Challenges and prospects of AIoT application in hospitality and tourism marketing. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 13(3), 349–355. doi: 10.1108/JHTT-05-2022-326
Kemec, A. (2022). From Reality to Virtuality: Re-discussing Cities with the Concept of the Metaverse. In retrieved from
Kraus, S., Kanbach, D. K., Krysta, P. M., & ... (2022). Facebook and the creation of the metaverse: radical business model innovation or incremental transformation? In International Journal of …. doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2021-0984
Kraus, S., Kanbach, D., Krysta, P., Steinhoff, M., & Tomini, N. (2022). Facebook and the creation of the metaverse: Radical business model innovation or incremental transformation? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 1–27. doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2021-0984
Kye, B., Han, N., Kim, E., Park, Y., & Jo, S. (2021). Educational Applications Of Metaverse: Possibilities And Limitations. Journal Of Educational Evaluation For Health Professions, 18, 1–13. doi: 10.3352/ Jeehp.2021.18.32
Lee, H J, & Hwang, Y. (2022). Technology-Enhanced Education through VR-Making and Metaverse-Linking to Foster Teacher Readiness and Sustainable Learning. Sustainability. doi: 10.3390/su14084786
Lee, Hye Jin, & Hwang, Y. (2022). Technology-Enhanced Education through VR-Making and Metaverse-Linking to Foster Teacher Readiness and Sustainable Learning. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(8). doi: 10.3390/su14084786
Lee, U. K., & Kim, H. (2022). UTAUT in Metaverse: An “Ifland” Case. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic ….doi: 10.3390/jtaer17020032
Lim, W. Y. B., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Cao, X., Miao, C., & ... (2022). Realizing the metaverse with edge intelligence: A match made in heaven. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv …. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2201.01634
Lv, Z., Qiao, L., Li, Y., Yuan, Y., & Wang, F.-Y. (2022). BlockNet: Beyond reliable spatial Digital Twins to Parallel Metaverse. Patterns, 3(5), 100468. doi: 10.1016/j.patter.2022.100468
Maria Kovacova, Veronika Machova, D. B. (2022). Immersive Extended Reality Technologies, Data Visualization Tools, and Customer Behavior Analyticsin the Metaverse Commerce. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 10(2), 7.doi: 10.22381/jsme10220221
Nalbant, K. G., & UYANIK, Ş. (2021). Computer vision in the metaverse. Journal of Metaverse. retrieved from
Ning, Huansheng, et al. “A Survey on Metaverse: The State-of-The-Art, Technologies, Applications, and Challenges.” ArXiv (Cornell University), 18 Nov. 2021,
Oh, H. J., Kim, J., Chang, J. J. C., Park, N., & Lee, S. (2023). Social benefits of living in the metaverse: The relationships among social presence, supportive interaction, social self-efficacy, and feelings of loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 139, 107498. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2022.107498
Ostrander, M. (2008). Talking, looking, flying, searching: information seeking behaviour in Second Life. Library Hi Tech, 26(4), 512–524. doi: 10.1108/07378830810920860
Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Penfold, P. (2009). Learning Through the World of Second Life—A Hospitality and Tourism Experience. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 8(2–3), 139–160. doi: 10.1080/15313220802634224
Pratisto, E. H., Thompson, N., & Potdar, V. (2022). Immersive technologies for tourism: a systematic review. In Information Technology & Tourism (Vol. 24, Issue 2, pp. 181–219).doi: 10.1007/s40558-022-00228-7
Shen, B., Tan, W., Guo, J., Zhao, L., & Qin, P. (2021). How to promote user purchase in metaverse? A systematic literature review on consumer behavior research and virtual commerce application design. Applied Sciences. doi: 10.3390/app112311087
Solakis, K., Katsoni, V., Mahmoud, A. B., & Grigoriou, N. (2022). Factors affecting value co-creation through artificial intelligence in tourism: a general literature review. Journal of Tourism Futures, ahead-of-p(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/JTF-06-2021-0157
Sparkes, M. (2021). What is a metaverse. New Scientist, 251(3348), 18. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(21)01450-0
Stylianos Mystakidis. (2022). Metaverse. Encylopedia, 486–497. doi: 10.3390/ encyclopedia2010031
Syahputra, E. (2022). Telkom Bakal Perkenalkan Metaverse Mall di Digiland 2022. retrieved from
Snyder, H. (2019). Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, 333-339. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039
Talwar, S., Kaur, P., Nunkoo, R., & Dhir, A. (2022). Digitalization and sustainability: virtual reality tourism in a post pandemic world. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 0(0), 1–28. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2022.2029870
Thomason, J. (2021). MetaHealth-How will the Metaverse Change Health Care? Journal of Metaverse. retrieved from
Um, T., Kim, H., Kim, H., Lee, J., Koo, C., & ... (2022). Travel Incheon as a Metaverse: Smart Tourism Cities Development Case in Korea. In ENTER22 e-Tourism …. retrieved from
Vidal-Tomás, D. (2022). The new crypto niche: NFTs, play-to-earn, and metaverse tokens. Finance Research Letters, 47, 102742.doi: 10.1016/
Vo-Thanh, T., Zaman, M., Hasan, R., Akter, S., & Dang-Van, T. (2022). The service digitalization in fine-dining restaurants: a cost-benefit perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 34(9), 3502–3524.doi: 10.1108/IJCHM-09-2021-1130
Wang, Yuntao, Su, Z., Zhang, N., Xing, R., Liu, D., Luan, T. H., & Shen, X. (2022). A Survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security, and Privacy. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2022.3202047
Wang, Yuyang, Lee, L.-H., Braud, T., & Hui, P. (2022). Re-shaping Post-COVID-19 Teaching and Learning: A Blueprint of Virtual-Physical Blended Classrooms in the Metaverse Era. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2203.09228
Wu, T., & Hao, F. (2023). Edu-Metaverse: concept, architecture, and applications. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–28. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2023.2198567
Xi, N., Chen, J., Gama, F., Riar, M., & Hamari, J. (2022). The challenges of entering the metaverse: An experiment on the effect of extended reality on workload. In Information Systems Frontiers. Springer. doi: 10.1007/s10796-022-10244-x
Xu, F. (2013). Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014, April 2016. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-03973-2
Xu, F., Buhalis, D., & Weber, J. (2017). Serious games and the gamification of tourism. Tourism Management, 60, 244–256. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.11.020
Xu, M., Ng, W. C., Lim, W. Y. B., Kang, J., Xiong, Z., & ... (2022). A full dive into realizing the edge-enabled metaverse: Visions, enabling technologies, and challenges. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2203.05471
Zaheer, Muhammad, et al. “Generative Cooperative Learning for Unsupervised Video Anomaly Detection.” Computer Vision Foundation, 1 June 2022. doi: 10.1109/cvpr52688.2022.01433. Accessed 10 July 2023.
Zaman, U., Koo, I., Abbasi, S., Raza, S. H., & Qureshi, M. G. (2022). Meet Digital Twin in Space? Profiling International Expat’s Readiness for Metaverse Space Travel, Tech-Savviness, COVID-19 Travel Anxiety, and Travel Fear of Missing Out. Sustainability. doi: 10.3390/su14116441
Zertuche, J. P., Connors, J., Scheinman, A., Kothari, N., & Wong, K. (2020). Using virtual reality as a replacement for hospital tours during residency interviews. Medical Education Online, 25(1). doi: 10.1080/10872981.2020.1777066