Loyalty Model for Ethnic Restaurants: The Role of Quality and Value

Main Article Content

Wahyu Rafdinal
Dwi Suhartanto


Food Quality, Service Quality, Physical Environment Quality, Price Value, Emotional Value, Loyalty


Recent research discusses the need for a better understanding of customer perceptions about ethnic restaurant attributes such as qualities and values in influencing the process of customer loyalty and ethnic restaurant competitiveness. This study aims to analyze the importance of quality and value in influencing loyalty in ethnic restaurants. The sample in this study are 210 respondents who visit ethnic restaurants twice in the past month. Data are collected using questionnaire survey which was done in around Bandung Raya. The analysis technique used is the Structural Equation Model with Partial Least Square. The results showed that the quality of ethnic restaurants such as food quality and physical environment quality directly influence loyalty. Meanwhile, service quality has an indirect effect on loyalty through value. Then, price value and emotional value directly influence loyalty. This study provides a better understanding of scholars and managers in ethnic restaurants about restaurant quality, value, and loyalty. This study suggests that the quality of ethnic restaurants, such as food quality, service quality, and physical environment quality can be valuable indicators for increasing values and loyalty, as well as being an attractive marketing strategy for the preferences of different market segments for ethnic restaurant experiences.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 49 | pdf Downloads 65


Amofah, O. (2016). the Influence of Service Marketing Mix on Customer Choice of Restaurant in Kumasi. European Journal of Business and Management, 8(11), 102–112.

Berezan, O., Raab, C., Tanford, S., & Kim, Y. S. (2015). Evaluating Loyalty Constructs Among Hotel Reward Program Members Using eWom. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 39(2), 198–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348012471384

Bowen, J. T., & Shoemaker, S. (1994). The cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 94(12), 1449. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8223(94)92562-3

BPS. (2019). Statistik penyediaan makanan dan minuman. Badan Pusat Statistik.

Brečić, R., Mesić, Ž., & Cerjak, M. (2017). Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic quality food characteristics by different consumer segments. British Food Journal, 119(4), 845–862. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-06-2016-0284

Cao, Y., & Kim, K. (2015). How Do Customers Perceive Service Quality in Differently Structured Fast Food Restaurants? Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 24(1), 99–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2014.903817

Cha, J. M., & Borchgrevink, C. P. (2019). Customers’ perceptions in value and food safety on customer satisfaction and loyalty in restaurant environments: moderating roles of gender and restaurant types. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 20(2), 143–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2018.1512934

Chen, P. T., & Hu, H. H. (2010). The effect of relational benefits on perceived value in relation to customer loyalty: An empirical study in the Australian coffee outlets industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 405–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.09.006

Chen, Y. C. D., & Lee, C. S. (2018). Is it the staff or is it the food? How the attire of restaurant employees affects customer judgments of food quality. British Food Journal, 120(6), 1223–1235. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-08-2017-0447

Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394222001

DiPietro, R. B., & Levitt, J. (2019). Restaurant Authenticity: Factors That Influence Perception, Satisfaction and Return Intentions at Regional American-Style Restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 20(1), 101–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2017.1359734

Festivalia, F., Savitri, D., & Engrani, M. (2017). The Importance of ISO 2200 in Traditional Food in Indonesia, Case in Rendang Catering. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 28, 87–89. https://doi.org/10.2991/ictgtd-16.2017.16

Gracia, E., Bakker, A. B., & Grau, R. M. (2011). Positive emotions: The connection between customer quality evaluations and loyalty. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(4), 458–465. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965510395379

Gronroos, C. (1990). Service Managemnt: A Management Focus for Service Competition. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 1(1), 6–14.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

Hallowell, R. (1996). The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: An empirical study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(4), 27–42. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239610129931

Han, H., & Sean, S. (2017). Customer retention in the medical tourism industry : Impact of quality , satisfaction , trust , and price reasonableness Customer retention in the medical tourism industry : Impact of quality , satisfaction , trust , and price reasonableness. Tourism Management, 46(February 2015), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.003

Handoyo, C. C., Clarissa, Claudia, G., Milka, & Firdayanti, S. A. (2018). Klappertaart: an Indonesian–Dutch influenced traditional food. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 5(2), 147–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2017.12.002

Harrington, R. J., Ottenbacher, M. C., & Fauser, S. (2017). QSR Brand Value: Marketing mix Dimensions among McDonald’s, KFC, Burger King, Subway and Starbucks. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(1), 551–570. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2015-0300

Hon, Q. G., & Prybutok, V. R. (2008). Determinants of Customer-Perceived Service Quality in Fast-Food Restaurants and Their Relationship to Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions. Quality Management Journal, 15(2), 35–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/10686967.2008.11918065

Išoraitė, M. (2016). Marketing Mix Theoretical Aspects. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 4(6), 25–37. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.56533

Irianto, D., & Kartikasari, D. (2020). Fan Loyalty Toward International Football Team: The Role of Brand Image. International Journal of Applied Business Research, 2(01), 58-72. https://doi.org/10.35313/ijabr.v2i01.95

Jackson, G., & Ahuja, V. (2016). Dawn of The Digital Age and The Evolution of The Marketing Mix. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 17(3), 170–186. https://doi.org/10.1057/dddmp.2016.3

Jalilvand, M. R., Salimipour, S., Elyasi, M., & Mohammadi, M. (2017). Factors influencing word of mouth behaviour in the restaurant industry. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 35(1), 81–110. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-02-2016-0024

Jang, S. C. (Shawn), & Ha, J. (2015). The Influence of Cultural Experience: Emotions in Relation to Authenticity at Ethnic Restaurants. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 18(3), 287–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2015.1051436

Jati, I. R. A. P. (2014). Local wisdom behind tumpeng as an icon of indonesian traditional cuisine. Nutrition and Food Science, 44(4), 324–334. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-11-2013-0141

Jin, N. (Paul), & Lee, S. M. (2017). A conceptual framework for healthy food choice in full-service restaurant. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 20(3), 304–320. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2016.1209719
Kang, S. K., Lee, C. K., Lee, Y. K., & Li, D. X. (2016). A quality-Value-Attitude Model: The Case of Expo 2010 Shanghai. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 40(6), 764–771.

Kim, S. (Sam). (2013). Testing an attribute-benefit-value-intention (ABVI) model of local food consumption as perceived by foreign tourists. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(1), 123–140. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MRR-09-2015-0216

Kivela, J., & Crotts, J. C. (2006). Tourism and Gastronomy: Gastronomy’s Influence on How Tourists Experience a Destination. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 30(3), 354–377. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348006286797

Kukanja, M., Gomezelj Omerzel, D., & Kodrič, B. (2017). Ensuring restaurant quality and guests’ loyalty: an integrative model based on marketing (7P) approach. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 28(13–14), 1509–1525. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2016.1150172

Kurian, G., & Muzumdar, P. M. (2017). Restaurant Formality And Customer Service Dimensions In The Restaurant Industry: An Empirical Study. Atlantic Marketing Journal, 6(1), 75–92.

Kushwaha, G. S., & Agrawal, S. R. (2015). An Indian customer surrounding 7P’s of service marketing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.10.006

Lai, I. K. W. (2015). The Roles of Value, Satisfaction, and Commitment in the Effect of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty in Hong Kong–Style Tea Restaurants. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 56(1), 118–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965514556149

Lee, J. S., Lee, C. K., & Choi, Y. (2011). Examining the role of emotional and functional values in festival evaluation. Journal of Travel Research, 50(6), 685–696. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510385465

Lee, K., Khan, M., Ha, I. S., & Ko, J. Y. (2018). Exploring the Impacts of McService on Customers’ Loyalty: An Emerging Market’s Perspective. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 21(1), 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2016.1276318

Lehtinen, U., & Lehtinen, J. R. (1991). Two Approaches to Service Quality Dimensions Two Approaches to Service Quality Dimensions. Service Industries Journal, 11(3), 287–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069100000047

Liat, C. B., Mansori, S., & Huei, C. T. (2014). The Associations Between Service Quality, Corporate Image, Customer Satisfaction, and Loyalty: Evidence From the Malaysian Hotel Industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 23(3), 314–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2013.796867

Lin, I. Y., & Mattila, A. S. (2010). Restaurant servicescape, service encounter, and perceived congruency on customers’ emotions and satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 19(8), 819–841. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2010.514547

Liu, W. K., Lee, Y. S., & Hung, L. M. (2017). The interrelationships among service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty: Examination of the fast-food industry. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 20(2), 146–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2016.1201644

Loebnitz, N., & Aschemann-Witzel, J. (2016). Communicating organic food quality in China: Consumer perceptions of organic products and the effect of environmental value priming. Food Quality and Preference, 50, 102–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.02.003

Loebnitz, N., Mueller, S., & Grunert, K. G. (2015). Impacts of situational factors on process attribute uses for food purchases. Food Quality and Preference, 44, 84–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.03.014

Lu, C., Suhartanto, D., Gunawan, A., & Chen, B. (2020). Customer Satisfaction toward Online Purchasing Services: Evidence from Small & Medium Restaurants. International Journal of Applied Business Research, 2(01), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.35313/ijabr.v2i01.89

Ma, G. (2015). Food , eating behavior , and culture in Chinese society. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2(4), 195–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.11.004

Moreira, A. C., & Silva, P. M. (2015). The Trust-Commitment Challenge in Service Quality-Loyalty Relationships. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 28(3), 253–266. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-02-2014-0017

Nouri, B. A., & Soltani, M. (2015). Evaluating the Effect of Tourism Marketing Mix on Buying Holiday Homes in Cyprus. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(5), 63–74. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijba.v6n5p63
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL : A multiple- Item Scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–40.

Pogorelova, E. V., Yakhneeva, I. V., & Agafonova, A. N. (2016). Marketing Mix for E-commerce. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(14), 6744–6759.

Ryu, K., & Han, H. (2010). Influence of the Quality of Food, Service, and Physical Environment on Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in Quick-Casual Restaurants: Moderating Role of Perceived Price. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 34(3), 310–329. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348009350624

Ryu, K., Lee, H. R., & Kim, W. G. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200–223. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111211206141

Savelli, E., Murmura, F., Liberatore, L., Casolani, N., & Bravi, L. (2019). Consumer attitude and behaviour towards food quality among the young ones: empirical evidences from a survey. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 30(1–2), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2017.1300055

Shamah, R. A. M., Mason, M. C., Moretti, A., & Raggiotto, F. (2018). Investigating the antecedents of African fast food customers’ loyalty: A self-congruity perspective. Journal of Business Research, 86, 446–456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.05.020

Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why We Buy What We Buy : A Theory of Consumption Values. Journal of Business Research 22, 22, 159–170.

Suhartanto, D. (2018). Tourist Satisfaction with Souvenir Shopping: Evidence from Indonesian Domestic Tourists. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(6), 663–679. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1265487

Susskind, A. M., Kacmar, K. M., & Borchgrevink, C. P. (2018). Guest–Server Exchange Model and Performance: The Connection Between Service Climate and Unit-Level Sales in Multiunit Restaurants. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 42(1), 122–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348016683512

Thalib, S. (2015). The Effect of Services Marketing Mix and Customer Value on Satisfaction, Trust, and Loyalty. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3(9), 935–949.

Watson, G. F., Beck, J. T., & Henderson, C. M. (2015). Building, Measuring, and Profiting from Customer Loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(6), 790–825. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-015-0439-4

Wu, H. C. (2013). An Empirical Study of the Effects of Service Quality, Perceived Value, Corporate Image, and Customer Satisfaction on Behavioral Intentions in the Taiwan Quick Service Restaurant Industry. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 14(4), 364–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2013.802581

Yeap, J. A. L., Ong, K. S. G., Yapp, E. H. T., & Ooi, S. K. (2019). Hungry for more: understanding young domestic travellers’ return for Penang street food. British Food Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-09-2018-0632

Yi, S., Zhao, J., & Joung, H. W. (2018). Influence of price and brand image on restaurant customers’ restaurant selection attribute. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 21(2), 200–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2017.1368808

Zameer, H., Wang, Y., Yasmeen, H., & Ahmed, W. (2019). Modeling the Role of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Building Service Brand Equity. International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management, 10(2), 55–72. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijabim.2019040103

Zhang, T., Chen, J., & Hu, B. (2019). Authenticity, Quality, and Loyalty: Local Food and Sustainable Tourism Experience. Sustainability, 11(12), 3437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123437