The Role of Religiosity on Employee Engagement and Performance: The Perspective of Muslim Employees

Main Article Content

Anthony Brien
Dwi Suhartanto
Ira Siti Sarah
Tintin Suhaeni
Setiawan Setiawan
Aldy Mochammad Faiz Raksayudha

Keywords

job engagement, job performance, Muslim, religiosity

Abstract

Literature suggests that religiosity is an imperative factor in influencing a person's work. However, a lack of attention has been given to its effect on employee engagement and employee job performance. The purpose of this study is to assess the direct effect religiosity has on employee job performance and its indirect effect through employee engagement from the perspective of Muslim employees. To examine the religiosity-job performance model, this study utilizes Partial Least Squares (PLS) modelling with a sample of 569 Muslim employees in Bandung, Indonesia. This study reveals that religiosity dimensions (practice, altruism, and belief) significantly influence employee engagement. However, among the religiosity dimensions, only altruism has both a direct and indirect effect on employee engagement. While this unique study confirms the link between engagement and job performance, it offers a new understanding of the employee engagement role and the link between employee religiosity and employee job performance. With no previous studies in this area, it offers new insights and theoretical and managerial implications.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 192 | pdf Downloads 166

References

Abu-Alhaija, A. S., Raja Yusof, R. N., Hashim, H., & Jaharuddin, N. (2019). The influence of religious orientation on viewers’ loyalty towards satellite TV channels: The case of Muslim viewers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 10(4), 1196-1218. doi:10.1108/JIMA-01-2018-0008

Agarwala, R., Mishra, P., & Singh, R. (2019). Religiosity and consumer behavior: a summarizing review. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 16(1), 32-54. doi: 10.1080/14766086.2018.1495098

Alessandri, G., Consiglio, C., Luthans, F., & Borgogni, L. (2018). Testing a dynamic model of the impact of psychological capital on work engagement and job performance. Career Development International, 23(1), 33-47. doi:10.1108/CDI-11-2016-0210

Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., Fletcher, L., D, R., & Holmes, J. (2015). Evaluating the evidence on employee engagement and its potential benefits to NHS staff: a narrative synthesis of the literature.
Health Service Delivery Research, 3(26), 1-424. doi: 10.3310/hsdr03260

Barhem, B., Younies, H., & Muhamad, R. (2009). Religiosity and work stress coping behavior of Muslim employees. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 2(2), 123-137.
doi: 10.1108/17537980910960690

Batson, D. C., & Rebecca, A. G. (1981). Religious orientation and helping behavior: Responding to one's own or the victim's needs? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(3), 511–520. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.40.3.511

Brien, A., Anthonisz, A., & Suhartanto, D. (2019). Human capital in the Dubai hotel industry: A study of four- and five-star hotels and the HR challenges they face. Journal Of Human Resources In Hospitality & Tourism, 18(20), 1-19. doi: 10.1080/15332845.2019.1558489

Chin, W. W., Peterson, R. A., & Brown, S. P. (2008). Structural equation modeling in marketing: Some practical reminders. Journal of marketing theory and practice, 16(4), 287-298. doi: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679160402

Clayton, R. R., & Gladden, J. W. (1974). The Five Dimensions of Religiosity: Toward Demythologizing a Sacred Artifact. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13(2), 135-143. doi: 10.2307/1384375

Dean, D., Suhartanto, D., & Kusdibyo, L. (2019). Predicting Destination Image in Creative Tourism: A Comparative between Tourists and Residents. International Journal of Applied Business Research, 1(1), 1-15. doi: 10.35313/ijabr.v1i01.36

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.

Guest, D. E. (2015). Voice and employee engagement. In P. Ackers & S. Johnstone (Eds.), Finding a Voice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hair, J. E., Hult, G. T., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (2 ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2018). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Chengage.

Hamza, K. (2010). Measuring Religiosity in Consumer Research From an Islamic Perspective. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 26(1), 52-78. doi: 10.1108/10264116201000003

Haruna, A. Y., & Marthandan, G. (2017). Foundational competencies for enhancing work engagement in SMEs Malaysia. Journal of Workplace Learning, 29(3), 165-184. doi: doi:10.1108/JWL-07-2016-0066

Ismail Hussein, N. (2019). Employee engagement and job performance in Lebanon: the mediating role of creativity. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(3), 506-523. doi: 10.1108/IJPPM-02-2018-0052

Johansen, M. S., & Sowa, J. E. (2019). Human resource management, employee engagement, and nonprofit hospital performance. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 29(4), 549-567. doi: 10.1002/nml.21352

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724. doi: 10.2307/256287

Kim Shyan, F., David, S. W., & Erdogan, B. Z. (2004). The influence of religion on attitudes towards the advertising of controversial products. European Journal of Marketing, 38(5/6), 537-555. doi: 10.1108/03090560410529204

King, J. E., & Williamson, I. O. (2005). Workplace Religious Expression, Religiosity and Job Satisfaction: Clarifying a Relationship. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 2(2), 173-198. doi: 10.1080/14766080509518579

Kutcher, E. J., Bragger, J. D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., & Masco, J. L. (2010). The Role of Religiosity in Stress, Job Attitudes, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 319-337. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0362-z

Mathew, G. C., Prashar, S., & Ramanathan, H. N. (2018). Role of spirituality and religiosity on employee commitment and performance. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 16(3), 302-322. doi: 10.1504/ijicbm.2018.090913

Milliman, J., Gatling, A., & Kim, J. (2018). The effect of workplace spirituality on hospitality employee engagement, intention to stay, and service delivery. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 35, 56-65. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2018.03.002

Moon, T.-W., Youn, N., Hur, W.-M., & Kim, K.-M. (2020). Does employees’ spirituality enhance job performance? The mediating roles of intrinsic motivation and job crafting. Current Psychology , 39, 1618–1634. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9864-0

Nikolova, I., Schaufeli, W., & Notelaers, G. (2019). Engaging leader – Engaged employees? A crosslagged study on employee engagement. European Management Journal, 37(6), 772-783. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.004

Osman-Gani, A. M., Hashim, J., & Ismail, Y. (2013). Establishing linkages between religiosity and spirituality on employee performance. Employee Relations, 35(4), 360-376. doi: 10.1108/ER-04- 2012-0030

Rehman, A., & Shabbir, M. S. (2010). The relationship between religiosity and new product adoption. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1(1), 63-69. doi: 10.1108/17590831011026231

Saks Alan, M. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement revisited. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 6(1), 19-38. doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-06-2018-
0034

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619. doi: 10.1108/02683940610690169

Saroglou, V. (2011). Believing, Bonding, Behaving, and Belonging: The Big Four Religious Dimensions and Cultural Variation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(8), 1320-1340. doi: 10.1177/0022022111412267

Schaufeli, W. (2014). What is Engagement? In C. Truss, K. Alfes, R. Delbridge, A. Shantz & S. E (Eds.), Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Sikorska-Simmons, E. (2005). Religiosity and Work-Related Attitudes Among Paraprofessional and Professional Staff in Assisted Living. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 18(1), 65-82. doi: 10.1300/J496v18n01_05

Souiden, N., & Rani, M. (2015). Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward Islamic banks: the influence of religiosity. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(2), 143-161. doi:10.1108/IJBM- 10-2013-0115

Suhartanto, D., & Brien, A. (2018). Multidimensional engagement and store performance: The perspective of frontline retail employees. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 67(5), 809-824. doi:10.1108/IJPPM-03-2017-0065

Suhartanto, D., Gan, C., Sarah Ira, S., & Setiawan, S. (2019). Loyalty towards Islamic banking: service quality, emotional or religious driven? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 11(1), 66-80. doi: 10.1108/JIMA-01-2018-0007

Suhartanto, D., & Leo, G. (2018). Small business entrepreneur resistance of ICT adoption: a lesson from Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 21(1), 5-18. doi: 10.1504/IJBG.2018.10015253

Tiliouine, H., Cummins, R. A., & Davern, M. (2009). Islamic religiosity, subjective well-being, and health. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(1), 55-74. doi: 10.1080/13674670802118099